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Tech

Measuring Core Body
Temperature from
the Back of the Body

Today, taking a bath is not only a means to keep clean, but also to reduce fatigue and stress. However, taking a bath with hot water for a long time can also be dangerous, leading to scalding or even a heart attack. To prevent these risks, several studies based on measuring bio-signals have been conducted, but due to high prices, difficulty of use, and restricted functions, these studies’ recommendations cannot be easily adopted by the public. Therefore, developing accurate methods to measure bathing temperature and bathing time should be the most direct approach to solve these problems. In this study, a smart bath assistive device based on an inner water temperature measurement function is proposed. Prior to development of the device, a bathing environment was emulated with six temperature sensors affixed to different depths to find the optimal depth for measuring bathing temperature. According to the measurement results, the device was designed in a mushroom shape with the cap part floating on the water’s surface and housing the electronic components, and temperature sensors within the stem part were immersed in the water approximately 5 cm below the surface to measure the inner water temperature. Due to the low-power consuming Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) processor and waterproof design, the device is able to float in hot water and monitor the bathing temperature variation over a long period of time. The device was compared alongside a commercial analog bathing thermometer to verify the performance of temperature measurements. In addition, a compensation algorithm was developed and programmed into the device to improve the accuracy of measurements. Processed data is transmitted by Bluetooth to a dedicated Android app for data display and storage. The final results show that the proposed device is highly accurate and stable for monitoring bathing temperature.

Healthcare

Smart Sleep
Assitant Lamp

Children struggle to fall asleep by themselves because of their physiological characteristics. Therefore, re-search has been carried on various devices (such as a smartphone) to assist in improving the sleep quality of children. However, all such devices need to be controlled by parents and do not have functions for monitoring the sleep environment. In this paper, a smart sleep-lighting system that includes a sleep-lighting device and a smartphone dongle is developed to improve the sleep environment of children. The temperature, humidity, and luminance of the sleep environment are monitored and analyzed by the sleep-lighting device to control multi-color light and audio components. The colored light emitted by the multi-color light can be ad-justed to improve the sleep atmosphere. Also, the audio component can play white noise to induce sleep. In addition, parents can use a smartphone dongle with a multi-channel wireless communication method to monitor and control one or more lighting de-vices in different locations in real time. For environmental monitoring, average difference between proposed device and commercial sensor from chamber setting temperature 15 °C to 35 °C was 0.588 °C ± 0.10 ˚C, and average error value of the humidity measurement was 0.74 % at 40% ~ 60 % RH. Also, the manufactured sleep-lighting device shows good performance in multi-color light emission, and playing of white noise. As result, the smartphone connected to the proposed smartphone dongle enables monitoring and control of the proposed lighting device in a wireless well. The manufactured sleep-lighting device has a high-precision temperature and humidity sensor and a lumi-nance sensor that can accurately monitor the sleeping environment. The lighting device can play white noise to induce sleep in children. Also, a multi-color LED light is operated via a smartphone application to improve the sleep atmosphere. The measured data will be sent to the lighting device and processed together with sleep environment data in order to improve the sleep quality. Additionally, the final system will be tested for real end-users with clinical experiments by sleep research center of a university hospital.

Smart-care

Measuring Core Body
Temperature from
the Back of the Body

To measure skin temperature accurately, a semiconductor-based microtemperature sensor with a maximum accuracy of ±0.3°C was chosen and controlled by a high-performance/low-power consumption Acorn-Reduced Instruction Set Computing Machine (ARM) architecture microcontroller to build the temperature measuring device. Relying on a 2.4 GHz multichannel Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) RF communication technology, up to 100 proposed temperature measuring devices can transmit the data to one receiver at the same time. .e shell of the proposed wireless temperature-measuring device was manufactured via a 3D printer, and the device was assembled to conduct the performance tests and in vivo experiments. .e performance test was conducted with a K-type temperature sensor in a temperature chamber to observe temperature measurement performance. .e results showed an error value between two devices was less than 0.1°C from 25 to 40°C. For the in vivo experiments, the device was attached on the back of 10 younger male subjects to measure skin temperature to investigate the relationship with ear temperature. According to the experimental results, an algorithm based on the curve-fitting method was implemented in the proposed device to estimate the core body temperature by the measured skin temperature value. .e algorithm was established as a linear model and set as a quadratic formula with an interpolant and with each coefficient for the equation set with 95% confidence bounds. For evaluating the goodness of fit, the sum of squares due to error (SSE), R-square, adjusted R-square, and root mean square error (RMSE) values were 33.0874, 0.0212, 0.0117, and 0.3998, respectively. As the experimental results have shown, the mean value for an error between ear temperature and estimated core body temperature is about ±0.19°C, and the mean bias is 0.05 ± 0.14°C when the subjects are in steady status.

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